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Каталог растений - Плодовые деревья - Pyrus L - Груша
Каталог растений

Pyrus L - Груша

Pyrus L - Груша
Семейство: розовоцветных
Описание растения:

Груша (Pyrus), род плодовых деревьев подсемейства яблоневых семейства розовоцветных. Известно около 60 видов. Важнейшие виды груши, от которых произошли культурные сорта: груша обыкновенная, или лесная (Pyrus communis), дико растущая в Европе, Западной и Средней Азии; груша снежная (Pyrus nivalis) - в Европе, Западной Азии; груша Буасье (Pyrus boissieriana) - в Средней Азии и Иране; груша Коржинского (Pyrus korshinskyi) - в Средней Азии; груша поздняя (Pyrus serotina) - в Восточной Азии; груша уссурийская (Pyrus ussuriensis) - на Дальнем Востоке, северо-востоке Китая и полуострове Корея. Деревья культурных сортов груш отличаются большой долговечностью (до 200 лет); высота 15-20 м. Крона сжатой пирамидальной формы. Корневая система малоразветвлённая, стержневая, основная масса корней в слое почвы 20-80 см. Листья яйцевидные, не опушенные, тёмно-зелёные, блестящие, зубчатые, цельнокрайные, плоские или с волнистыми краями. Цветковые почки груши закладываются в год, предшествующий плодоношению, отличаются от ростовых почек более крупным размером и округлой тупой верхушкой. Цветки груши белые, редко розовые или красные, собраны в щитки. Плоды кубаревидные, грушевидные, удлиненно-грушевидные и бергамотообразные, почти округлые, от очень мелких (до 25 г) до очень крупных (свыше 300г), жёлтой или зелёной окраски, с румянцем или без него. Груша - светолюбивое, недостаточно засухоустойчивое растение, по морозостойкости уступает яблоне и вишне. Для успешной культуры летних сортов груши требуется безморозный период около 135 суток, осенних 150-185, зимних 180-200. Груша может расти на любых почвах (за исключением песчаных, щебенистых и засоленных), в которых возможен нормальный рост корней, но наиболее пригодны для неё чернозёмные и каштановые (в предгорьях). Большая часть сортов груши самобесплодны, поэтому для нормального завязывания плодов необходимы сорта-опылители. В пору плодоношения сорта на сильнорослых подвоях вступают на 5-6-й год, в полное - на 20-25-й. Периодичность плодоношения выражена меньше, чем у яблони. Урожайность колеблется в зависимости от сорта, ухода и района разведения. Плоды культурных и дикорастущих груш используют в свежем, сушёном и консервированном виде, а также для приготовления цукатов, пастилы и разных напитков. Плоды европейских сортов содержат в среднем (в % ): воды 80, сахаров 10,4, кислот 0,3, дубильных веществ 0,03, клетчатки 2,6, азотистых веществ 0,4, золы 0,35: витамины В, С, провитамин А. Из семян дикорастущих груш выращивают подвои для прививки на них культурных сортов. Древесина некоторых видов груш используется в столярном и токарном производстве, для изготовления музыкальных инструментов, груша лохолистная (Pyrus elaeagrifolia) применяется как декоративное растение, а груша иволистная (Pyrus salicifolia) - как закрепитель песков. Груша - древнейшее культурное растение. На территории бывшего СССР занимает 2-е (после яблони) место среди семечковых пород. Главные районы разведения: Украина, Молдавия, Северный Кавказ, Закавказье, Белоруссия, Центральночернозёмные области. Северная граница распространения проходит по линии Ленинград - Ярославль - Горький - Уфа - Оренбург. Сортовой состав грушевых садов разнообразен и зависит от природных и экономических условий. Основные промышленные сорта груш подразделяются на летние - Бессемянка, Бон-Кретьен Вильямс, Лимонка, Любимица Клаппа, Русская малгоржатка, Тонковетка; осенние - Бергамот осенний, Бере Лигеля, Бере Боск, Лесная красавица и др.; зимние - Бере зимняя Мичурина, Бере Арданпон, Кюре, Сен-Жермен и др.


Уход за растением:

Размножают культурные сорта груш прививкой на сильнорослые и слаборослые подвои. Семенное размножение применяют в селекции при выведении новых сортов. Лучший срок посадки груш в южных районах - осень, в средней полосе - ранняя весна. Площадь питания на плодородных и обеспеченных влагой почвах для сильнорослых сортов 8x6 м, слаборослых 7x5 м; на более бедных и неорошаемых почвах соответственно 8х5м и 6x4 м. Для лучшего опыления сорта опыляемые и сорта-опылители размещают чередующимися полосами по 4-6 рядов (если оба сорта основные) или 4-6 рядов опыляемого сорта и 1-2 ряда сорта-опылителя (если он не является ведущим сортом в хозяйстве). После посадки в течение 5-6 лет междурядья в саду содержат под чёрным паром или занимают под овощные культуры. В последующем в орошаемых условиях чередуют чёрный пар, сидераты и травы, в неорошаемых - чёрный пар и сидераты. В южных районах перспективна культура груши, привитой на слаборослых подвоях. Вредители груши: грушевая медяница, грушевая тля-листокрутка, грушевая плодожорка, грушевый плодовый пилильщик, яблонный цветоед, зимняя пяденица, боярышница, кольчатый шелкопряди др. Болезни груш: парша, пятнистости, ржавчина, мучнистая роса, гнили и др.


  

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Deprecated: Non-static method JoomFishManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 56

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 57

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 60

Deprecated: Non-static method JoomFishManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 56

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 57

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 60

Deprecated: Non-static method JoomFishManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 56

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 57

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 60

Deprecated: Non-static method JoomFishManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 56

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 57

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/plugins/joomfish/missing_translation.php on line 60
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Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::_() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/modules/mod_poll/tmpl/default.php on line 48

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::addIncludePath() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::find() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 66

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method JHTMLForm::token() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::getToken() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/html/html/form.php on line 36

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 124

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 125

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::getHash() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 126

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically in /home/vitragsk/cveti.by/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 111

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