Lotus, lotus flowers, colors health and happiness
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Lotus (Nelumbo) - it's amphibious herbaceous perennial. Stalks of the lotus, which turned into a powerful thick rhizome, immersed in the underwater soil. Some leaves are submerged, scale-like, others - surface, floating or lifted high above the water. Lotos - the language of flowers happiness, health, long life.

Lotus - happiness, health, long life

лотосы Lotus leaves floating - on long flexible petioles, in the form of flat and round. Leaves are rising - on erect stalks, they are larger, have a funnel shape with a diameter of 50-70 cm
The flowers are large, up to 30 cm in diameter, with numerous pink or white petals, they are highly raised above the water line on the stalks. Just below the insertion of the flower is the so-called reaction zone, in which the lotus changes its position towards the sun. Center of the flower are numerous bright yellow stamens and a wide obconical receptacle. The flowers have a gentle but pleasant aroma. Fruit - mnogooreshek, obconical shape - reminiscent of the bell garden watering cans, large jacks, each of which sits on one seed. They are dark brown, the size of a small acorn, the fruit of their 30 pieces. In dry conditions, they remain viable for a long time, sometimes centuries. There are cases when the seeds are kept in museum collections, germinated after 150 and even 200 years after harvest.
лотосы цветы Many centuries worshiped the lotus in the East, it takes pride of place in religious rituals, traditions and legends, evidenced by the numerous monuments of literature, architecture and art. Mythopoetical tradition of ancient India is our land like a giant lotus blossomed on the surface of water, and heaven - like a huge lake, overgrown with beautiful pink lotus, home to the righteous, pure soul. White lotus - an indispensable attribute of divine power. Therefore, many gods in India have traditionally depicted standing or sitting on a lotus or lotus flower in her hand. Buddha sits on a lotus and Brahma rests. Vishnu the demiurge of the universe holds in one of four lotus hands. "Lotus goddess" are represented with a lotus flower in her hair. Torrential rain of lotuses poured from the sky at the birth of Buddha, and everywhere you set foot divine infant, grew up a huge lotus.
In China, the lotus is venerated as a sacred plant even before the spread of Buddhism. Thus, one of the eight immortals, virtuous maiden Ho Sin-gu pictured holding a "flower opening the heart" - Lotus. In Chinese painting was common theme of "Western Paradise" - the lotus lake. Each lotus flower growing in the lake meets the soul of a deceased person. Depending on the goodness or sinfulness of earthly life, or lotus flowers blossom or wither.
лотосы As a medicinal plant Lotus was known in China for several millennia BC. In traditional Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Arabic, Tibetan medicine for the preparation of medications used all parts of the plant - the seeds whole or large mealy buds receptacle, petals, stems, stamens, pistils, leaves, roots and rhizomes. In our time in the plant revealed different biologically active substances, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Preparations of the lotus are used as a tonic, cardiotonic, restorative means. In addition, the lotus - a valuable nutritional and dietary plant. In South-East Asia, it has long been used in food and specially cultivated as a vegetable. Rhizomes eaten raw, boiled, fried, pickled for winter. Of the roots boiled soup, prepared starch and oil. Young leaves are eaten like asparagus. Seeds are eaten raw as a delicacy and candied, candy, and rhizome pieces, obtained a sort of "jam". From seeds and rhizomes are prepared flour. Even eat the stamens and stems. On the globe grows two types of lotus: Lotus orehonosny, or Indian (Nelumbo nucifera), inhabitant of the Old World - the well-known aquatic plant. Boundary of its range in the north runs along the Amur River basin in the south it descends to the tropics of northern Australia. The second type - the yellow lotus, or American common in the New World.
Scope of these lotus lotus orehonosnogo wide. Orehonosny lotus grows in the north-eastern Australia, the islands of the Malay archipelago, the island of Sri Lanka, the Philippines, southern Japan, the Indian subcontinent and Indochina, China. On the territory of Belarus lotus is found in some places.
лотосы In the Kuban estuary, in old thickets lotus first small floating leaves appear in May. After a month and a half grow surface leaves behind developing buds, which grow and 15-20 days open, turning into a blindingly bright flowers. Afternoon lotus petals are closed, the second day in the morning once again completely diverge slightly in the afternoon close, as the third or fourth start to fall off at the slightest breeze. Seeds mature in 35 - 40 days. Lotus seeds fall into the water from drooping fruits and drown. Lotus blossom lasts from early - mid July to late September. Sometimes individual flowers occur in October.
The lotus can be grown in both natural and artificial bodies of water - wells, filled with water, tubs, concrete pools. In Europe, the lotus was grown as an ornamental plant from the end of the XVIII century. Its planted in greenhouses, and where the climate allowed - in open ponds and gardens. Professionals and skilled gardeners growing lotus is quite possible. The lotus grows well at water temperatures of 25-30 ° C, for it requires a long growing season and constant sunlight.
Location and soil for lotuses. In artificial open water to the lotus prepare special soil consisting of silt, sand and small amounts of clay. At the bottom of the poured 10-inch layer of sand (shingles) on it - 40-60 cm of soil. It is desirable that the water was clean, soft, weakly running, but the lotus grows well in standing. If it is grown in a small pond or aquarium, then periodically adding water (to defend, rain), and sometimes it completely replaced. Indoors lotus bred mostly in the greenhouses of botanical gardens - in the aquarium or special pools.
Reproduction of lotuses. Propagation is by seeds and lotus rhizome division in March and April. Hard shell seeds nadpilivayut a file, then the seeds are put into the jar with warm water and put in a sunny place. A few days later the shell seed bursts, one after another, showing small leaves, and after 20 days, and thin roots. Young plants are planted directly into the pond or if the water is already heated, or in pots that are put in a container with water. Initial water level maintained within the range of 6 cm, and then as they grow their plants are transplanted into a larger container, and the water level is raised to 20-40 cm lotus leaves to float on the surface. At great depths and shaded areas lotus does not bloom. In the first year seedlings usually develop only floating leaves, for a second and sometimes third year, grow and surface, form flower buds. With good care and favorable conditions, for example, in the south, the plant blooms in the year of planting. Sowing can not start until the spring, but during the summer. When all these conditions from May to July, the plant produces many leaves, and in late July - early August, the flowers appear. In some countries, in Korea, northern China, Germany, water from the reservoirs, where the lotus grows in the winter descends, and the bottom of the reservoir harboring a thick layer of leaves or any insulation - to protect plants from freezing.
Yellow lotus, or the American (Nelumbo lutea) - distributed in the New World. It occurs in North and South America, the Antilles and Hawaii. In the Eastern Hemisphere, it is grown only in botanical gardens. Information about the culture liter. Yellow is very small. From the literature it is known that contain it should be in the pool at a temperature above 20 ° C, as in warmer water does not bloom. From the Botanic Gardens Sukhumi, Dushanbe, Tashkent and from Sochi were poluchiny seeds. Sown in spring in shallow waters, they are well-germinated in mid-May (10-15 days later than we. Indian) on the surface of the water appeared floating leaves. The second year, floating leaves of the seedlings emerged in early May. In June, the developed surface leaves in July - the buds and flowers with a diameter of 20 cm began to bloom in September. By late October, had been collected for more than 60 mature seeds, nuts. The water temperature in the reservoir during the summer has repeatedly raised to 25-35 °, and yet, the plants bloom in unison and abundantly fruitful. Further development of leaves, buds, blossoms and fruit in liters. Yellow also occurred later than we. Indian. Only the air leaves him were more durable compared to the second view. In a large mass of yellow lotus is a colorful picture. Surface water carpet floating lotus leaves, and above them rise to the slim, tall (up to 1 m) petioles round, about 70 cm in diameter, air-surface leaves. Numerous yellow or cream-colored flowers are revealed at sunrise. They are more fragrant than a liter. Indian. By noon, the petals are closed in a tight bud. This is repeated 4-5 days, and then the petals fall. Surface of leaves and flowers are covered with very thin wax coating. Fruits liter. yellow bell resemble garden watering can. On its surface the cells mature to 25 round nut with a diameter of about 1 cm with a hard shell. Germination remains an extremely long time. Rhizome lotus lies at a depth of 60 cm from each node grow many roots, two leaves and a flower spike. Due to continuous growth of rhizomes of flowering liter. Yellow continues until October-November.

 

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