Birch tree in the culture of
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Pre-Christian symbolism associated with birch, known to many people living in regions of the spread of this plant, this also applies to the Celts and the ancient Scandinavians and Slavs to us. For all these nations birch is primarily a symbol of transition from spring to summer and, more broadly, the symbol of death and resurrection.

Scandinavians and other Finno-Ugric peoples and birch

Birch - Keremet (object of worship) in the Chuvash village. From the time of the tribal system birch - tree of worship and a national symbol of the majority of the Finno-Ugric Peoples of the North - Karel, Vesey, Mary, Ugra, Mansi, Khanty, Udora, Permyaks, Komi and Finnish-Suomi (SUMI) and the Finnish-tavastov (yomi ) - as well as highly esteemed national tree of the Swedes and Norwegians. On Russian territory - see Björkö, Birch Island, Borkezund. In Scandinavian birch was the symbol of the goddess Nerthus, which was considered a great Mother Earth. So far in Central and Northern Sweden celebrated the "days of birch" between April 22 and May 1. It is usually constructed so-called "May pole," that is a pole with a crossbar at the top, which is decorated, entwined young birch branches, and the first wild flowers, and this object is actually replacing a natural birch, becoming a collection point for young people and various amusements in the open air, Recalling that it is an ancient festival, performed a lively, growing the Sacred Birch. Rune Berkana. Eighteenth German rune alphabet rune of growth and fertility - Berkana - means "birch", "birch branch". In Erzya is a national holiday ritual "Tudonn iltyamon chi" ("The Feast of birch). Great birch Permian people, which is the main worship the tree under which the sacrifices are, in essence, "a temple under the open sky" for many generations Zyryan Komi, Komi-Permyak and Cherdyn Mansi, located near the village of Ust-Vym. Presumably, it was a tree as tall as a 12-14-storey building, a few meters in girth, perfectly harmonious and perfectly healthy. Great birch was cut down and burned in 1379 by Orthodox missionaries Crusaders, messengers St. Sergius and Rostov Assumption monastery headed by Stepan snoring, then became a bishop Stephan of Perm, who drew the peoples of the North to Christianity. According to ancient notions Mansi and Khanty, sacred birch-mother of belonging to the goddess Kaltash was zlatolistoy and growing family silver trunks from a single base.

Slavs and the birch tree

In the old Slavic beliefs related to the birch tree was ambivalent: according to one tradition of the tree and its products, including birch bark, were considered a talisman of evil forces, in particular, birch twigs, used in the bath, and treated as instruments of ritual purification, on the eve St.John birch branches stuck above the door to the Evil One has not penetrated into the house. According to other traditions considered unclean birch tree in whose branches settled devils and mermaids, and that is the epitome of souls of deceased relatives; birch tree is also considered, from which the devil makes his instruments - for example, the witches, according to popular belief, flying with birch brooms. white birch - the embodiment of the heavenly lights and light - was introduced in Slavic mythology, the cult Bereginja, great goddess, along with Rod gave birth to all things. Over time, Birch was especially revered by Rusal - a feast for Bereginja (mermaids). On the old Russian female ritual feast - Semik that celebrated the eighth week after the Passover, in June, on Thursday the girls went into the woods "curling birch. Selecting trees, the girls curled them - tied the tops of two young birch trees, bending them to the ground. Twigs plaited wreaths. In this case, sang songs and went round dance round the birch trees dressed with ribbons, bringing her to the village. When curling wreaths girls kumilis or sister: in the circle connected branches of birches hung a cross, kissing the girls in pairs through the wreath, changing what some things (rings, handkerchiefs) and then called themselves kumoy or sister. It is believed that Umai (Umayya), Turkic goddess personifying earthly nature, down to earth with two birch trees.

Folk omens and birch

Birch spring flows a lot of juice - a rainy summer.
Autumn birch leaves begin to turn yellow from the top - early spring, zazhelteyut below - later.
Coley birch opushaetsya ahead, expect a dry summer, and if alder - wet.
If the birches a lot of earrings - to harvest peas
If the spring on the bank of a lot of kidneys - switchgrass will be plentiful
If birch pinecone soda spring - the oats are well born
If birch buds bloom below, then vigorous bread (good grain) will be born
Spring on the aspen and birch is a good lap - will be hearty bread
If the leaves of the birch are thick and dark green (with an abundance of summer moisture) - to yield and increased grain
When the birch appear yellow leaf spots with a horse's head, it's time to sow winter crops
If the leaves turn yellow in the birch tree at the top, and rye to sow the first sowing, and if in the middle - in the middle, if closer to the root - the last sowing (votyats.)
When the burst of the birch catkins - the time to plant corn
If the top of birch leaves earlier and more blossomed - the bread to sow earlier, if in the middle of more blossomed - to sow the medium, if the bottom more blossomed - to sow later
If birch blossom on top, then sat rany better if in the middle - the average sowing, if the bottom - the late sowing (the sowing of spring crops)
This oats, when birch leaf will blossom
Russian proverbs, riddles and jokes about the birch
Standing tree, the color green. In this tree - four grounds: first - the sick to health, the second - the people well, third - from the winter light, the fourth - decrepit swaddling
Birch is not a threat: where is there and makes noise
Bela elm - so pitch black
Thin birch, but the mind learns
For the enemy, and birch - a threat
Birch juice with pulp
Green, but not prairie, white, not snow, wavy, and not the head (puzzle)
Climbed on gorushku, Oder heifer, the fat in the mouth, skin off (mystery - birch sap)

In addition, Birch - a district center of Brest region of Belarus, formerly a famous monastery, founded in 1648, Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania L. Sapieha for the Catholic Order of cap. It was one of the largest and richest monasteries not only in Belarus, but the entire Commonwealth. Its construction was carried out unknown to the Italian architect and was completed in 1689 to discuss the material you can on our forums about the plants and wildlife in Belarus.


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