All plant and animal cells, microtubules are

Good news from the world of plants and discoveries in this field. Microtubules maintain cell shape, cell movement and cell division. These fundamental results can be important for agricultural research and published in the October 10, 2010, just before the online edition of Nature Cell Biology.

Arrays of molecular rods (microtubules) support cell shape, cell movement and cell division

All plant and animal cells rely on the development of arrays of molecular rods and built from the protein tubulin. These rods, called microtubules organize the cell and create the forces necessary to support the cell shape, cell movement, and, importantly, cell division. To accomplish these tasks, microtubules must be arranged in certain configurations. Animal cells separate chromosomes during cell division through a network of microtubules from centrioles. A great mystery of how plants that do not have centrioles organize its network of microtubules. Understanding these mechanisms of molecular organization is one of the main goals of cell biology. As co-author David Ehrhardt from the Department of Plant Biology Carnegie explained: "In many cells the microtubule arrays are created by a centralized body is called the centrosome. Tsentrosomnaya arrays have been the subject of research for decades, and much to understand how these arrays are created and organized by the centrosome. However, many differentiated animal cells, the cells of flowering plants and arrays that are created independently from the centrosome. In fact, the flowering plants lack centrosomes together. Although the centrosome arrays distributed in nature, they have received less research and mechanisms for their organization remain largely mysterious. " Laboratory Erhardt previously found that certain microtubule arrays in plant cells are produced in many places along the inside of the cell membrane, where they are separated from the sites of birth and move along the membrane to interact with other microtubules. The main task for studying the molecular basis for these processes has been visualization of protein complexes, which give birth to new microtubule polymers. Ehrhardt and Hashimoto's team met this challenge by tagging component of these complexes, known as the germ of complexes with multiple copies of a fluorescent protein derived from jellyfish. When introduced into plant cells and visualized with highly spinning disk confocal microscopy, this allowed the researchers said the protein to observe what happens as the microtubule array is constructed. Ehrhardt continued: "In the centrosomal arrays, these embryos complexes involved in the centrosome, where they lead to a stellar array with the center near the nucleus contrast, in cells, we examined these complexes were distributed on the cell membrane and have been. Are mostly located along the sides of other microtubules, an association that was associated with their activities. Thus, microtubules appear, is important for the detection and management of their own proteins education. In addition, the daughter of microtubules were created or in the various angles to the mother of the polymer, or in addition thereto. This choice of angle can play a role either in creating new organizational states or maintaining existing. "Researchers plants indicated that the formation of complexes often do not remain in force after the creation of new microtubules, but often are likely to undergo a new cycle of microtubule create a new place. Scientists have suggested that the release of the complexes from the mother of microtubules may be associated with the mechanism of the daughter of a detachment of microtubules from the appearance of sites. To examine these questions, the researchers reported their investigation of plant mutant lacking protein Katanin (on behalf of the Japanese word for sword), whose job it is cut into pieces of microtubules. Scientists believed that Katanin may be responsible for separating the new microtubule formation of their complexes. In fact, without cutting the protein, the daughter of microtubules completely separated from their birth sites, and noted the formation of the complexes was based on the daughter of microtubules. The only time they persuaded to write in the formation of the complex in the mutants, where microtubules depolymerized completely - that is, the process by which a large molecule breaks up into separate units. When it happened, said the complex also disappeared. The results show that the formation of complexes remain associated with the mother of microtubules, while microtubules daughter removed or Katanin cutting or complete depolymerization. "To our knowledge, this study is the first witness to the dynamics of individual gamma tubulin complex processes that lie at the heart of every plant and animal species," said the scientist. "We look at our plant system as a model for non-centrosomal array organization, which takes place in many important differentiated cells of the animals. Although we expect that some of the molecular players may be different, many of the principles may be similar. What we learn here could help us understand the basic mechanisms underlying cultural growth and development of plants, and may have implications for understanding the process of acquisition of the cell shape and function of human cells. " Authors on the paper, Masayoshi Nakamura, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Carnegie, David Erhardt, and Takashi Hashimoto, Nara, and Stanford University. This work was supported in part by the Carnegie Institution for Science, Japanese, NARA Institute of Science and Technology and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.


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