Poisonous plants are those plants that produce and accumulate in the venoms of life. Cause poisoning of animals and humans. In the world's flora is known for more than 10 thousand species of H. p., Mainly in the tropics and subtropics, many of them, and in temperate and cold climates, in the former USSR, now CIS countries (mainly temperate climate) about 400 species.
Poisonous plants - all about poisonous plants and just about taste
Poisonous plants are common among fungi (although the mushrooms - not plants, but many think so), horsetails, club moss, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. In countries of temperate climate most commonly they are represented in the family of buttercups, poppies, Euphorbiaceae, lastovnevyh, kutrovyh, Solanaceae, Figwort, Araceae. Many plant poisons in small doses - valuable therapeutic agents (morphine, strychnine, atropine, physostigmine, etc.). Poisonous plants are called, containing chemicals that, once in the human or animal to cause poisoning. Poisoning can lead to serious illness and even death. For most plants are poisonous substances are of great importance. They protect the plant from animals that might eat it, stems, leaves, roots or seeds. By the poisonous substances contained in plants include nitrogen compounds (alkaloids), compounds with sugar alcohols, acids and other substances (glycosides), vegetable soap (saponin), bitter substances, toxins, tar, hydrocarbons, etc. Some plants are poisonous bark and fruits, and leaves and flowers are quite harmless (buckthorn), others are poisonous flowers (buckwheat), third - only the fruit (husk), and in some species of poison the entire plant except fruit (sumac). There are all poisonous plants (raven eye). As the plants number of toxic substances in it is changing. Man and various animal species differently susceptible to various poisons. Thus, atropine, belladonna contained in, for example, greatly affects people, it is dangerous for cats, dogs and birds, but little effect on horses, pigs and goats, and rabbits for quite harmless.
Who is poisonous plants, komuto and no!
Birds die from the poisonous fruits of anise, cumin and fennel, and people use them for food. In part, this phenomenon is explained by the physiological characteristics of humans and various animal species, and above all the structural features of digestive organs and nervous system, because the toxic substances in most cases, ingested with food and primarily act on nerve cells. Children and young animals are more sensitive to poisons and drugs than adults, and therefore much more likely poisoned by toxic plants. This happens because children do not know what plants are poisonous. Poisonous plants can not be taken by mouth, unwashed hands, keep them, you can not touch the eye. Some poisons are found in the juice of plants, which can dissolve the fat that covers the surface of the skin, being absorbed into the skin and getting into the blood, the juice cause food poisoning. Poison injected into the blood, stronger than caught in the diet. Calla marsh. Left - the ripe fruit of the poisonous. Death by poisoning comes from the defeat of the most important organs, primarily respiratory, digestive and then. In acute poisoning, death occurs within minutes. Weak toxins are a long time, but can also lead to death. Therefore, when the poisoning is necessary to take urgent action. First of all, to circle the victim to a doctor. If it for some reason can not be done quickly, you need to take toxic substances from the body, washing the stomach with plenty of water. Antidotes are accepted only at the direction of a physician. Vegetable poisons in small doses are often used as medicines. Poisonous Plants are divided into several groups, depending on what they are working. Some have an impact mainly on the central nervous system (henbane, datura, belladonna, poppy husk), others - on the digestive tract and respiratory organs (arum, wolf bark, milkweed, dolls), and others - on the cardiovascular system (crow's eye Lily of the Valley). Primarily on the liver function affect ragwort and lupine, and on tissue metabolism - manna and flax seed. By the poisonous plants is about 10 thousand species, representing approximately 2% of the total number of plant species in the world. Most poisonous plants among angiosperms and fungi (see art. "Mushrooms"). Significantly less among them gymnosperms, pteridophytes, mosses, algae and lichens. Among dicotyledons toxic than among monocots. There are families in which most species of poisonous: Ranunculaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, mulberry, and others in the families Compositae and cactus poisonous plants, very little, and in the family Labiatae none at all. Within the genus could be poisonous and nonpoisonous species. Even the same species under different conditions of existence may be toxic or non-toxic. In equatorial countries, poisonous plants, more than in the temperate climate, and the poisons contained in them, have a stronger effect. If the poisonous plants growing in the south, such as aconite, laurel, to grow in the north, their toxic properties become weaker. But this does not mean that in colder climates are no poisonous plants. Poisonous rhododendron growing in Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula, are very common in cold climates poisonous hellebore and buttercups. Poisonous plants found in forests of coniferous and deciduous, dry and wet, in swamps and marshy areas along riverbanks, in meadows and fields, and as a weed near dwellings. Let us dwell on the plants the most dangerous and frequently encountered. In the forests of European part of the Soviet Union and sub-alpine zone of the Caucasus can be found a very handsome shrub bark wolf. The height of the bush - from 30 to 120 cm Wolf bass bloom in early spring, in April, before the appearance of leaves on the plant. Its fragrant pink flowers are arranged on the branch of a dense beam, pedicels very short. Do wolves bark beautiful fruits - oval, bright red drupes. However, they are very poisonous and bring death to those who swallow them. The plant contains glycoside dafnin. If poisoning this poison appear cramps and bloody diarrhea. Next to the wolf can be found bast bush honeysuckle common, or wolf berries. Height honeysuckle from 1 to 2.5 m. The yellowish-white flowers, and then dark red berries, there are two on the general peduncle. On this basis honeysuckle can be distinguished from other shrubs. In this plant are poisonous fruit. Globeflowers European. Right - the flower and root. The grass cover is coniferous and mixed forests of European part of USSR and the Caucasus is common crow four-eyes. This perennial is low plant is easy to learn - it does not seem to any other. At the top of the poisonous stem (its height - 15-30 cm) is four-whorl, from which comes with a green flower peduncle. Berry crow's eyes is black, with bluish bloom. Poisoning rhizome crow's eyes causes vomiting, berries act on the heart. Almost across the country on wet and damp forest meadows, marshes, muddy shores of rivers and ponds found very poisonous perennial milestones poisonous or cicuta. Height reaches milestone of 120 cm rhizome his thick, hollow inside, with partitions. On the longitudinal section rhizomes act drops yellow-orange resin. The lower part of stem hemlock usually reddish, double-, trizhdyperistye leaves are thin, delicate. White flowers are collected in inflorescence - cyme. General referred to as wrappers for umbrellas there is only partial. Blossoms milestones from June to September. All poisonous plants, especially root. The poison acts on the brain, death occurs from respiratory paralysis. Milestones - a very dangerous poisonous plant. From it often kills children, as the rhizome milestone sweet and the children take him for celery. Milestones often grows near streams in the villages, among the white-krylnika and sedges. Of the Umbelliferae, to which the milestones, there may be encountered and angelica angelica. But the stakes are easily distinguishable from them. Y Angelica and Angelica leaves, as well as a landmark, twice-, trizhdyperistye, but large. In the leaves of angelica big swollen vagina. In the shady forests and shrubs in south-west of European Russia and Ukraine and the Caucasus meets the poisonous plant arum spotted. He toxic raw leaves, roots and berries. Poisonous substance alkaloid aronin causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. In the Soviet Union is growing poisonous plant family Araceae - calla marsh. It can be seen on the banks of ponds and marshy meadows. It got its name because, after the formation of the fruits of his white opaque sheet is disclosed as a wing. Poisonous y calla rhizomes moist, but cooked they are edible. In peat bogs, in the coniferous forests of European part of Russia and Belarus, Siberia and the Far East grows wild rosemary marsh - shrub with sharp stupefying smell. Along with wild rosemary often blueberries, bilberries, lingonberries, heather. Height ledum - 50-120 see his young branches, the lower side of leaves, stems and fruit-boxes are densely covered with rusty-brown tomentum. Labrador tea blooms in May - June, with white bell-shaped flowers. All poisonous plants, especially their leaves. In the beech forests and along mountain slopes of the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Carpathians growing belladonna (deadly nightshade) - one of the most poisonous plants. All parts of plant are poisonous, often three of its fruit - a lethal dose for humans. Death occurs from respiratory arrest. In deciduous and mixed forests, and many other poisonous plants: kopyten European, Voronet spiked, anemones - Asherah, buttercups and forestry, perennial bluebell, lily of the valley in May, the dream-herb. On the marshy river banks, in marshy meadows and wet places generally in the globe-flower growing European (poisonous roots), omezhnik water, white hellebore, acrid buttercup. In the beech forests of the Crimea and the Caucasus mountain forests grows an evergreen conifer highly poisonous yew-tree, which lives up to 3-4 thousand years. Most often, yew grows in the form gustorazvetvlennogo bush, its reddish wood is very hard and dense. Leaves (needles) yew linear, flat, shiny. Red fruits. Needles, bark and wood are poisonous, especially the old needles. The poison acts on the heart, death in cases of poisoning can occur from suffocation. In the Caucasus and the Black Sea coast is growing in the wild and cultivated evergreen tree up to 10 m - boxwood. It also bred in gardens and parks as a curb bush. Bark greyish boxwood leaves are oval, shiny, leathery. The flowers are small, clustered glomeruli, fruit - capsule. The plant has an unpleasant smell. All parts are poisonous boxwood. Death by poisoning comes from suffocation. Many poisonous plants among the weeds. They are even more dangerous, that grow near houses - on the vacant lots and gardens. Most frequently encountered hemlock, common in the European USSR, the Caucasus, Central Asia and western Siberia. The stem is covered with a glaucous bloom hemlock and red-brown spots. The flowers are small, white, gathered in the cyme. It flowers from June until autumn.
Signs of poisonous plants
One of the signs - the smell: hemlock smells like mice. All parts are poisonous plants, especially fruit. After the poisoning death comes from suffocation. Among the weeds can meet and other poisonous plants: hulwort white (bryony), bittersweet, cockle, spurge, wartwort containing a poisonous milky sap yellowish, henbane, a poisonous substance which acts on the brain. People poisoned by bleached, come in a violent state. Hence the phrase "stuffed henbane", "get enraged". Among cultivated plants, as is poisonous. Especially noteworthy soporific poppy and ornamental plant, aconite (wrestler). In poppy poisonous fruit - capsule, containing a milky juice, from aconite - poisonous roots. In the subtropics and tropics, more poisonous plants. We describe only some of them. In the Mediterranean, growing evergreen poisonous shrub - oleander. He is bred as an ornamental plant in the Black Sea and Caucasus as a room - just to the north. All parts of oleander are poisonous. There have been cases of poisoning by water, which dropped leaves and flowers of oleander. Poisoned by people who drank from the vessel, caps closed timber oleander, poisoned by wild fowl, roasted on skewers of oleander. In North America, found poisonous sumac shrub. This is a very poisonous plant - some people even a simple touch to it to cause poisoning. In adventure literature often mentions terrible poison curare, which South American Indians poisoned their arrows. The poison causes paralysis and death from respiratory arrest. Curare is a mixture of condensed extracts of South American plants of strihnos. The genus strihnos applies chilibuha - poisonous plant of tropical forests of Asia and northern Australia. In the last century there was the idea that somewhere in the southern countries is growing extremely poisonous tree oro. Alexander Pushkin wrote a poem about it, "oro". Do you remember these lines? In the desert, stunted and mean, on the ground, scorching heat, oro, how terrible time, is worth - one in the universe. Nature eager steppes in the day gave rise to anger and greens dead branches, and roots of poison drunk. But in fact this plant is not so toxic. Oro, very high (up to 40 m) tree. It grows on the islands of Java and Kalimantan. Toxic in oro latex, but poison it is weak. Therefore, for the poisoned arrows were added to the juice Anchar poisons other plants that act more strongly. In Pushkin's time botanists imagine oro exactly as described by the great poet. This view of the oro arose because in Java does have a "valley of death" and stay in it is dangerous to humans, but oro has nothing to do with it: everything in this valley, killing stands out from the mountain cracks carbon dioxide.